Mano Dura (Iron Fist) and the Ley Antimaras (Anti-Gang Law). Honduras. Social violence, (in)security, and security policies in Honduras and Central. America. Con la aprobación de la Ley Antimaras se sanciona con una pena de un fuerte lo que llevaba el Estado de Honduras, por lo que empezaron. cargo de las Fuerzas. Armadas. Reforma constitucional. Nueva Ley. Orgánica de la. Policía. Ley anti-maras. Reforma del. Código Penal. Crisis y reorganización.
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Schools and families can become sources of violence. The succession of unsuccessful punitive measures is now coming under closer scrutiny across the Northern Triangle. Hide Footnote Close monitoring of these efforts would help to assess their effectiveness, and the extent to which they could be copied.
Graduate Institute Publications, In the wake of the riots in Los Angeles, at least 1, Salvadorans were deported.
Furthermore, the Honduran institutions were overburdened with the large amount of crimes committed by children and adolescents. Following decades of armed conflict and the stereotyping of perceived internal enemies, governments, security authorities, as well as the media and the public, were not inclined to regard these acts of violence as at least partially the effects of social breakdown honduuras impoverishment.
Funding for large-scale violence prevention or citizen security projects targeted at these areas has trebled in the past year to reach hundreds of millions of dollars. After assuming office in JanuaryPresident Maduro became the pioneer of heavy-handed anti-gang policies by rapidly putting his promises into practice Mateo Some civil society organisations and private enterprises have tried to boost economic opportunities for gang members, but in general maras continue to be viewed as public enemies.
Hide Footnote Other non-gang criminal groups in Guatemala, popularly known as paisasare reportedly seeking to grab greater shares of the extortion market. The broader sexual violence in hondura and the particular abuses within gangs do not appear to have deterred girls from joining the maras. The priorities of my government will be to improve the economy, education, but first and foremost that Guatemalans rejoice in [living in] real antimras, which the state has to provide.
Securitization spectrum, page Progress in these areas is possible. While homicide rates initially hondurxs between andHonduras witnessed soaring numbers of murders from onwards see Chart 2, page However, mareros also suffer greatly from violence and see their human rights violated Ibid.
The latter were mostly reintegrated either into the B or MS El Salvador and Guatemala established a High-Level Security Group in August to improve information exchange and implement joint programs in their fight against transnational organised crime.
Hide Footnote Neither El Salvador nor Honduras initially featured rival criminal structures or vibrant community networks with the same strength as Guatemala. The dramatic drop in homicides observed in El Salvador during the month truce, however, provides strong evidence of the impact of maras on murder rates: Gangs were reportedly behind 86 per cent of the displacements. As with the heavy-handed policies, the preventive measures were launched in the political context of an election campaign — the elections of the deputies of the Legislative Assembly and the mayors in the Salvadoran cities, which were again fought for between ARENA and FMLN Cruz As the most important crime and revenue-raising business of the marasextortion is fundamental to understanding their resilience as well as the fear they have spread in their host societies.
El déjà-vu de las políticas de seguridad en Honduras
Although they are not the only groups dedicated to violent crime, the maras have helped drive Central American murder rates to highs unmatched in the world: Gangs in effect provide a psychological crutch and a social life, especially for bored young men from broken families.
Guatemala clearly provides an example of rhetorical securitization. Two to three businesses are estimated to close down each month as a result of extortions.
Across the Northern Triangle, small business owners, transport workers, self-employed people and even households are subjected to gang-led protection rackets. In this regard, Collins The first one stated they were not seeking to be acquitted of the charges against them, asked to be treated humanely, and requested support for their reintegration in civilian life through jobs and opportunities to study.
Given the 6 million Hondurans with their hands tied in the face of gang violence, whose human rights are more important? Obstacles honduraa Opportunities20 July However, when political reasons for such discourse come into play, as during the presidential election campaign in Honduras, the lines between politicization and securitization can become blurred.
Gangs are both antikaras in society and predatory upon it, and both victims and perpetrators. Those of the innocent citizens representing the vast majority of the population, or those of the criminals violating the rights of others? For more information, see Arellano.
A food distribution firm enlisted gangs to transport goods in exchange for lower extortion rates. The responses have hnduras failed to recognise the counterproductive effects of security measures that have given maras prisons in which to organise and confirmation of their identity as social outcasts.
Throughout the NTCA, violence prevention efforts have been largely ineffective, and evidence of any lasting achievements is scarce. Fighting the increasing influence of organized crime was already at a minimum level under Zelaya and was antimaaras ignored under Micheletti. April was the least violent month in more than a decade, with fewer than five homicides per day. But it will depend on international support, in particular the restraint of the new U. With the elections looming and languishing public support for the truce, a resumption of penal populism increasingly seemed a better strategy to attract votes.
In this way, the left-wing president moved closer to the old repressive concepts qntimaras the right-wing ARENA party Lambert The following statement of President Maduro substantiates hondurax Exactly when and where the street gangs took up the name is unclear.
El déjà-vu de las políticas de seguridad en Honduras | Crisis Group
Public responses to mara crimes have understandably been dominated by fear. Such measures could be emulated by gangs in Guatemala and Honduras. These should also include pledges to end forced recruitment, particularly of girls, and public assurances that neighbours and citizens are free to move through gang-affected territories without incurring the risk of violence.
In addition, a suggested youth violence prevention program has not been translated into public policies so far, 55 nor have the Guatemalan authorities been able to create a legal framework for the repression or the prevention of youth-related violence and crime Berlin et al. Indeed recently, the governmental discourse relating to the maras has swung back to a use of intense repressive statements. Lately, they have ceased using noticeable tattoos to avoid being identified by security forces.
In fact, the Iron Fist policies have turned out to be highly inconsistent, to institutionalize the maras in El Salvador, and to thereby contribute to the gang problem, rather than to solve it ECA ; Hume ; Cruz Soon afterwards, it withdrew the army from guarding prisons.
The role of extortion in driving forced displacement is harder to pinpoint due to a lack of reliable statistics, as well as the difficulty in identifying a single cause behind emigration.