Mano Dura (Iron Fist) and the Ley Antimaras (Anti-Gang Law). Honduras. Social violence, (in)security, and security policies in Honduras and Central. America. Con la aprobación de la Ley Antimaras se sanciona con una pena de un fuerte lo que llevaba el Estado de Honduras, por lo que empezaron. cargo de las Fuerzas. Armadas. Reforma constitucional. Nueva Ley. Orgánica de la. Policía. Ley anti-maras. Reforma del. Código Penal. Crisis y reorganización.
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Even civil society organisations willing to cooperate with the government hodnuras critical of the failure to address social inequalities as a source of crime. Periodic vetting of prison guards and tighter control on electronic and personal communications of prisoners, but without trampling on their rights to visits, are essential to halting criminal exploitation of jail systems.
Governments must go beyond punitive measures and address the social and economic roots antiimaras gang culture, tackle extortion schemes and invest in communities. Police chiefs and government officials continuously repeated such messages while the crackdown policies were in force Cruz Several of these early gang members had witnessed, suffered or participated in brutal acts in their countries of origin.
The broader sexual violence in society and the particular abuses within gangs do not appear to have deterred girls from joining the maras. Hide Footnote Instead, they looked upon the gangs solely as a security issue requiring ever more draconian responses. Indeed recently, the governmental discourse relating to the maras has swung back to a use of intense repressive statements.
A total of transportation workers were killed between and in El Salvador. The following statement of President Maduro substantiates this: Such measures could be emulated by gangs in Guatemala and Honduras.
El déjà-vu de las políticas de seguridad en Honduras
However, the initiating factor of the transposition of U. It also periodically affects mobility in Guatemala, where bus drivers, ticket inspectors and passengers were killed between andcausing many bus routes to stop services in gang-run areas.
Hide Footnote These gestures may signal the willingness of parts of the new administration to continue established U.
In The Construction of the Maras: Residents in a housing estate employed gang members to supervise access routes to their properties. List of illustrations Title Chart 2: The neighborhood Villa Cristiana is controlled by the Mara Feel free to give our address: It created in April a specialised office to combat extortions with separate units dedicated to the MS and the B In this way, the already politicized issue of the maras is arguably turned into a securitized matter by framing it as an urgent security matter through a securitization move see Chart 1, page Securitization spectrum, page This explanation, in combination with the fear that characterizes Salvadoran society, shows why the population tolerated a discourse and subsequent policies that downplayed human rights of alleged gang membersthe rule of law and mechanisms of political liability, as well as violating constitutional norms.
Indeed, the government faces serious problems in raising revenue and in providing public goods, including societal and citizen security. Inthe number of gang members killed was nearly twice the number captured. Search inside the book. More specifically, the mass media played a significant role in three ways: Combatting organized crime appears thus to be of a more pressing need than tackling gang-related violence. During the early s, economic adjustment policies raised poverty, spurring migrant flows north.
With disparities in the distribution of land, the contested results of the election in El Salvador fuelled revolutionary movements.
For more information, see http: The following statement of President Maduro substantiates this:. The force has been set up to coordinate the fight against transnational crime, explicitly including gangs, narcotics and human trafficking, as well as smuggling, and is set to involve joint operations by the police, army and tax agencies from each country. Targeted and substantial economic investment in impoverished communities with significant gang presence could reduce the incentives for blackmail.
Judicial institutions should avoid sending non-violent suspects to jail, especially those accused of possession of drugs for consumption.
Prisons have become essential to the criminal development of the maras. Public trust in Central American governmental institutions on a 0-to scale, April was the least violent month in more than a decade, with fewer than five homicides per day.
Gang Violence and Extortion in Antimaeas America This video from Crisis Groups explores the social and economic roots of gang culture and discusses new approaches to minimise the violence of illicit honduraas activity.
“Ley antimaras” debía ser derogada tras sentencia de CorteIDH pero al contrario será endurecida
Most members languish in illicit subsistence livelihoods. Hide Footnote More importantly, these measures transformed maras into more sophisticated criminal organisations. In a reported 76 per cent of cases, gangs were behind the extortion. By Augustthe number of people killed in hhonduras between police and street gangs had already surpassed the figure for all of In this way, securitization is a socially constructed and self-referential practice.