FTTX Concepts and Applications [Gerd Keiser] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. This book presents fundamental passive optical network. This book presents fundamental passive optical network (PON)concepts, providing you with the tools needed to understand,design, and build. FTTX concepts and applications / by Gerd Keiser. p. cm. — (Wiley series in telecommunications and signal processing) “A Wiley-Interscience publication.
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This is done by means of lightpaths that are routed and switched at intermediate nodes in the network. An increasingly larger number of functions are provided when moving up the protocol stack, and the level of functional abstraction increases. Join a Wiley Engineering Mailing List. This speed limit is about 2. The guard time provides tftx sufficient distance in time between cells to prevent colli- sions with cells coming from other ONTs.
Wiley-IEEE Press: FTTX Concepts and Applications – Gerd Keiser
This is discussed in Section 8. Constant bit rate CBR. For stimulated emission to occur, there must be a population inversion of carriers. Peak cell rate PCR: These also are known as directional couplers. At a certain signal level threshold the SBS process becomes nonlinear and the launched signal loses an increasingly greater percentage of power.
FTTX Concepts and Applications
When there are two or more consecutive blocks of three zeros, the coded binary blocks and are used alternately. As noted in Table 8. First, it requires very careful planning of the initial layout of splitter locations and the selection of splitting ratios in order to take into account both current and future subscriber connections. An access network encompasses connections that extend from a central com- munication switching facility called the central office; see Section 1.
The applications for G. Typically, the hole size is As shown in Figure 1.
Furthermore, since ATM uses high-speed transmission links, the small byte cells arrive at their respective destinations in the same continuous stream as they arrived at the multiplexer, despite having been interleaved with cells from other traffic streams. The encapsulated payload can be up to bytes long. ONTs are allowed to transmit. Since a laser-cooling module is not needed for stringent laser stabilization, nom- inal electric power requirements are berd.
Compact tap coupler consisting of a microtap and a pin photodiode. This application is given the designation FTTx. This was the initial PON tech- nology for which standards were established G.
A more efficient process is dynamic bandwidth allocation DBAwherein time slots of an idle or low-utilization user are assigned to a more active customer. As noted in Table 6.
The snap-on designs are the ones used most commonly for PON applications. Ribbon and loose-tube cable structures can be used for the optical feeder lines run- ning from the central office to the optical splitter in a PON.
Operation of a time-division multiple access protocol.
If a particular subscriber has no information to send during some time interval, that unused bandwidth segment on the network is not available to other subscribers, who may have a large amount of information waiting to be sent.
Network architecture for Problems 8. Since the copper wires were already in place almost everywhere, service providers decided to send data in the unused 4-kHz to 1-MHz bandwidth of these wires. Non-real-time services are gwrd for applications that do not have tight constraints on delay or delay variations. If the bit rate is 48 Mbps, what is the symbol rate? Another network term is overlay, which refers to a situation where one network runs on top of another.
With each pass through the cavity the photons stimulate more excited electrons to drop to the ground state, thereby emitting more photons of the same wavelength.
The ATM equipment at the destination reassembles the cell payloads into the original data packet format. The small package sizes of such transceivers save circuit board space and enable high port densities.
The principles of point-to-point Ethernet are described in Section 8. As described in Section This gives a quantum efficiency rang- ing from 30 to 95 percent. Some key concepts include the fol- lowing: Main constituents of an optical fiber link. The word campus refers to any group of buildings within reasonable walking distance For guided media the signal strength normally decreases expo- nentially, so for convenience one can designate it in terms of a logarithmic power ratio measured in decibels dB.
The much narrower spacings thus require strict wavelength control of the optical source.