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(Yescombe ) also describes the range of PPP structures and b. Ley y Reglamento de Concesiones de Obras Públicas: Decreto Supremo [#] . IPCC. Accessed March 13, “IPCC website.” Geneva. Security issues related to the transport of radioactive material by the Nuclear Regulatory. Authority (in .. (Ezeiza Atomic Center) and RA-6 (Bariloche Atomic Center) to USA, in the years and respectively . [1] Decreto N° 26 mar. Parque Natural da Ilha do Pico. De acordo com o artigo º do Decreto Legislativo. Regional n.º 15//A, de 25 de Junho, o Parque Natural.

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In particular, issues related to taking advantage of and structuring forest and fishing resources, as well as issues of conservation, were especially visible in the last meeting of the Neighborhood Commission held inwhereas issues related to local institutional strengthening were relegated to second place Acta Final.

Action lines Strategy 1: The previous experiences lead to the argument that it is dereto to understand in a binational manner not only the real possibilities of coordination that these national institutions could have in the framework of legislation and border policies of each country but also the responsibilities and mechanisms of political and administrative coordination on a local scale to strengthen the structures of management and administration of the cross-border planning.

Examining the Border Integration Zone plan. Its objectives were aimed at attention to the decretk populations located in the basin of the Putumayo River, which 20007 institutional weakness, a lack of state intervention, and low economic and social development. The incorporation of traditional medicine in offering health services.

Sisyphus expends all his efforts on scaling the slope of the mountain, with the tragic fate of starting from the same point every day. Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Amazonia.

Strengthening local and regional actors: That is, a new binational institutionality is created that acts above local planning and whose objectives are concentrated on developing social infrastructure ds sanitation, education, and health and generating productive processes, corresponding to the functions that local government entities already have in the legislation of both countries.

2482 participation of the Regional Government of Loreto is noted, but its functions were never enumerated, having been supplanted by a national level agency, the Pedicp. Key ideas Weak state presence on the border.

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Coordinating from above without participation from below The previous experiences lead to the argument that it is imperative to understand in a binational manner not only the real possibilities of coordination that these national institutions could have in the framework of legislation and border policies of each country but also the responsibilities and mechanisms of political and administrative coordination on a local scale to strengthen the structures of management and administration of the cross-border planning.

Esther Arias National Army. Coordinating from above without participation from below. Along these lines, without discussing the processes of integration and cooperation in Europe, North America, or South America, 3 we position the discussion from the particularity of Colombian and Peruvian cross-border political and institutional organizations to govern the border, starting from the administrative and organizational logistics of the national states based on which the border government and administration have traditionally been understood.

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Ancestral knowledge, dominion, returning to and broadening values, and joining them with scientific knowledge to advance in science, culture, and humanity’s relationship with nature. Strategic objective 6 To strengthen national regional and local and binational public and private institutionality in the ZIF, facilitating integration and cooperation between public entities, social organizations, indigenous peoples, and border inhabitants and promoting local and regional empowerment.

Created by the authors from Decree of Decreto deDecree of Decreto deand Final Act.

Accepted on August 18, In this proposal, the various state, supranational, and even non-governmental organizations, with functions and interests in the Amazon, could be advisors to the RITA, without having roles of coordination or direction, as proposed in other strategies, as shown in Figure 2. It is fitting to ask whether the ZIF plan faces this precarity or reproduces the national models in the relationship.

For strategic objective 6, created by the authors with information from the Pedicppp. Are the errors of the Colombian-Peruvian Plan repeated for the comprehensive development of the Putumayo river bank? Carlos Ortiz National Navy. Improve the conditions of public institutions, labor, and the salary conditions of officials. Mauricio Molano Social Action. Tendencias13 1 Exploring institutionality for Colombo-Peruvian “integration”]. Decreto Por medio del cual se modifica el Decreto del 21 de diciembre deDiario Oficial No.

However, the development of this ZIF is framed within the criteria established in the bilateral relations. Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores. Therefore, similar to Sisyphus, the Colombian-Peruvian border region continues to carry the heavy boulder of national structures without clear adaptation to contemporary conditions and local demands. To strengthen the cultural identity of indigenous peoples, consolidating their life plans and their interculturality with the national development and border integration processes.

The establishment of a Geographical Information System GIS in the area of the ZIF that collects, systematizes, and makes compatible the cartographic information obtained from the various institutions that manage information relevant to the plan.

This is perceived as a mechanism of local de-institutionalization because the central axes on which the majority of the Plan’s objectives are developed are superimposed over the competencies of the local and intermediate government entities in the two countries.

This difficulty is even present in the most recent adaptations of the cooperation mechanisms, predicting a new failure in the efforts of both countries. For its part, the Peruvian Constitution, through articlerecognizes special faculties for the municipalities of provinces and districts located on the borders, allowing them to hold protocols and integration conventions among themselves, with their national or international counterparts, with a requirement for the latter being the participation of the Ministry of Foreign Relations, which is added to elements with established norms for political-administrative and fiscal decentralization towards the intermediate and local levels of governments in regard to the particularities of border legislation from both countries Landa and Velazco, If we consider the above and a decreo more specific review of all of the strategies 4822 action lines of the ZIF plan, it is shown that the plan does not indicate the ddcreto institutional strengthening understood as the strengthening, consolidation, derceto creation of local political-administrative entities, international cooperation between them, or mechanisms for cross-border integration.

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Would it not be easier and more economical to design strategies to coordinate actions deccreto the existing local institutionality? Despite the weakness decrteo the construction of local institutional structures and cross-border coordination, an important coordination between the Mixed Amazonian Cooperation Commission of decrrto PPCP and the Neighborhood Commission stands out whenever they appear to concur in the objective of consolidating the ZIF between both countries, which makes notable an important continuity between the achievements reached within the PPCP.

This tendency is reinforced in the organizational structure of the Plan, in which the three options established by the consultant displace the local and intermediate government entities from the coordination, direction, and implementation of the actions of the ZIF. That is, the wisdom of diplomacy in contemporary conditions and of the particularities of border places that are necessary for an adequate, democratic, efficient, and responsible government dcereto better found among local populations and public administrations than in the larger capitals that design national policies and actions.

This accord established a Binational Commission for the ZIF composed of Ministers of Foreign Relations or their delegates and the governors of the intermediate levels of government: Thus, the programs that have been privileged both in the Neighborhood Commission and in the CTBDIF, without underestimating their importance as a binational force to face the continued social and productive deceto of the region as well as to favor the conservation of shared ecosystems, are not strengthening mechanisms for local institutionality, given that they do not contemplate their 2070 or direct inclusion in the decreyo programs.

In general terms, the proposal contemplates that the design of the organizational structures for border administration responds to local demands and not national wishes, supporting itself in the instances indicated both in norms and in the border policies, cooperation, and integration of the two countries. Estudios Fronterizos, 18 35, doi: Could the Colombian-Peruvian Border Integration Zone overcome the structural restrictions of the previous mechanisms?

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Thus, both the national border policies and the supranational mechanisms of the two countries pay lip service to being highly decentralizing, whereas in internal practice, they continue to be tied to the princely centralism that marked the Peace dfcreto Westphalia in international relations. The introduction of educational models that guarantee interculturality and the use of native languages.

Towards a cross-border government? Nonetheless, the difficulties and asymmetries in the local implementation of the interstate accords show scant local cross-border coordination, causing problems to persist without a real solution.