Crofer 22 APU offers a good balance of the properties required for high temperature electrochemistry. This makes Crofer 22 APU a very popular material for. The oxidation kinetics of the Crofer 22 APU steel—uncoated and coated with LSCF48—approximately obeys the parabolic rate law in air at. material used for the experiments was the Crofer 22 APU ferritic stainless steel from ThyssenKrupp VDM GmBH, Germany. The chemical composition of this.

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Crofer 22 APU: new material for fuel cells

Products and solutions, Crofer 22 APU, an iron-chromium alloy, for the first time fulfils the previously conflicting requirements of good high-temperature stability, high electrical conductivity and low zpu of expansion. The SOFC is a fuel cell variant which works at temperatures up to degrees. The starting materials for energy conversion can be hydrogen, natural gas or reformed gasoline. The aim is to use an Croer plant as a supplement for battery and dynamo.

Each cell contains an anode, cathode and ceramic zirconium dioxide as the electrolyte to start the power generation process.


Crofer 22 APU Interconnect Sheets

The most important components of pau SOFC stack are the interconnector plates between the cells. As well as making the electrical connection they also supply the cells with fuel gas and air via gas passages. The interconnector plates are made of Crofer 22 APU. The main reason is the high operating temperature of the fuel cells.

Normally, metallic materials achieve their long-term stability at such temperatures by means of high chromium content. Chromium also limits the thermal expansion of the alloy, giving it a similar coefficient of expansion ctofer the surrounding ceramic electrolyte.

However, at temperatures of degrees, the chromium is released and destroys the electrolyte. While the ceramic materials used previously for the interconnector plates do not have the problem of chromium evaporation, they are unsuitable for economic volume production due to the complex production requirements involved for example in milling the passages for the gas supply.

Crofer 22 APU: new material for fuel cells – thyssenkrupp AG

Critical to this is its 0. Together with the other alloying elements titanium and manganese, the lanthan ensures that a protective coating of chromium manganese oxide forms on the surface of the interconnector plates as soon as the fuel cell becomes active.


This so-called chromium-manganese spinel prevents chromium evaporation and at the same time assures the necessary electrical conductivity of the interconnector plates. The manufacture of Crofer 22 APU requires extreme precision at every stage of the production process. Ctofer the melting furnace, where several tons of the alloy are produced in one charge, minimum amounts of alloying elements have to be added in precise quantities.

During subsequent hot rolling it is important that the temperature window is observed precisely. In terms of fabrication, however, Crofer 22 APU is just as easy to handle as a standard stainless steel. It can be formed without problems, given ribs or api surface structures and machined using conventional production methods and equipment.

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