This standard is issued under the fixed designation C ; the number immediately 1 This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C09 on. All the Controls products ASTM C standard. Enter now!. Originally approved in Last previous edition approved in as C – 05a. 2 For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website,

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Mitigation methods can be split into those methods suitable for new concrete and those that can be used for existing structures. Alkali metals, for example, which are found in the far left column of the periodic table, have a single electron in their outermost band.

Although cement fineness and clinker alkali content did not affect the classification in terms of potential reactivity of the aggregates used in this study, they might change the classification for the aggregates near the boundary between reactive and nonreactive aggregates.

That, honestly, is about as simple as I can explain this reaction. Cracking usually appears in areas with a frequent supply of moisture.

ASTM C1260 – 14

ASR can be avoided with a proper concrete mix design. It is important to understand the benefits and deficiencies offered by various testing procedures. Your email address will not be published.

Frank Bowen, a Master Precaster graduate, received his M. However, we must take zstm time to review the current ASTM standards and check our mix designs to assure material confidence. Knowing this is essential to understand what needs to be done to mitigate this destructive process.


Though Stanton might not have been the first to visually recognize ASR, he is credited with the first serious research into why it occurred. Petrography may be used to classify an aggregate as potentially reactive, but expansion testing is required to determine the extent of the reactivity and appropriate levels of prevention.

Non-metal atoms gain an electron, or electrons, from another atom to become negatively charged ions. In this study, high and low alkali portland cement clinkers were selected and ground with gypsum in a ast ball mill to three fineness levels: Atoms are comfortable with themselves when they are fully loaded on that outer band.

ASTM C Potential Alkali Reactivity of Aggregates | CTLGroup

Search Enter search terms: This test is similar astk C with a testing period d1260 14 days. Stanton, began his research on a few of these structures and found an expansive reaction between cement and aggregate taking place. Petrographic examination can conclusively identify ASR. Ask your aggregate provider first for test results before contacting a laboratory. Publication Version Published Version. Overall, ASR is characterized primarily by four main features: Clinker alkali had no or little effect on moderately reactive aggregate; whereas it had considerable effect on highly reactive aggregate.

At least, this was the blame at the time. Lithium compounds have also been used, but they may be cost-prohibitive and limited in availability. Determined to understand more, I have spent the past several weeks diving into the mysteries of ASR using recent reports from the Federal Highway Administration and various other scholarly professionals in an effort to fill in the blanks.


Highly reactive aggregate tended to be more sensitive to cement fineness and alkalinity. C is used as an initial screening test for aggregates and C determines the effectiveness of the SCM being considered to moderate the aggregate activity. For ASR to occur, four things must be present: Development of a more economical and more abundant admixture may be the future for ASR mitigation.

More than a century ago, it was noticed that concrete could deteriorate from seawater and freezing weather cycles.

ASTM C Standard

Photo provided by Frank Bowen. Great article that gives axtm simplified overview of ASR, expansion testing, and mitigation techniques.

Specification of fineness and alkali content of cement, or both, might be beneficial to further improve the reliability and reproducibility of ASTM C Skip to main content. You have just begun the journey into understanding your own c2160 as they relate to ASR. While the fundamental physical and chemical reactions remain poorly understood, it is well known that ASR destroys the durability of concrete and can cause serious maintenance and reconstruction costs.

This is a result of a number of sequential reactions. This repository is part of the Iowa Research Commons.